Hyperlipaemia. The metabolic origins of equine hyperlipaemia were investigated by analysing the concentration and composition of plasma lipoproteins in 18 ponies with the condition. Health also had a significant effect on the development of hyperlipemia with any concurrent disease giving an OR of 76.98 (45.76–129.48). Peak serum triglyceride concentration was recorded for donkeys sampled multiple times; however, the episode was deemed to begin on the date of the first evidence of increased triglyceride concentration. AMS is a common and almost inevitable consequence of donkeys being fed high calorie diets or grazing good quality pasture. Donkeys are adapted to diets of low nutritional value. The mean concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were increased by 4‐, 52‐ and 19‐fold, respectively, compared with a control group of 18 healthy ponies. The Donkey Sanctuary is a UK based charity that funds and facilitates non-invasive research with the aim of improving donkey and mule health and welfare. Search for more papers by this author . Another common cause is overgrazing in a rich pasture. In all cases, hyperlipemia was a secondary complication of a primary systemic disease including septicemia, colitis, parasitism, esophageal obstruction, gastric impaction and rupture, fecalith, and pituitary adenoma. Hyperlipaemia is a serious condition caused by too much fat in the blood. Interactions were examined by including interactions in the model one at a time to assess their effect. Author information: (1)Department of Veterinary Clinic and Hospital, University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria. Department of Veterinary Clinic and Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria 3030. Hyperlipaemia is a life-threatening disease to which donkeys are particularly prone, both as a primary or secondary condition. If there is any doubt of a donkey’s health status after a full clinical examination has been performed then a blood sample should be taken and triglyceride levels checked, prior to continuing with the planned procedure, unless an emergency situation does not render this appropriare. Do not confuse with: Hyperlipaemia Description. trailer <<4A6710BF78BC43E58E23976178AF10CE>]/Prev 151904/XRefStm 1417>> startxref 0 %%EOF 169 0 obj <>stream Loving finally reveals it at the table to Rachel and Tom about what had happened. The matabolic pathways are complex, involving many factors. Even with dedicated care, the prognosis for donkeys with hyperlipaemia is also extremely guarded. Prompt and aggressive intensive care treatment This causes a spike in blood fat levels. Regular weight monitoring by all donkey owners and keepers should be encouraged because such an early warning system could prove invaluable; even the use of less accurate measures such as heart girth measurements and nomograms will allow large weight losses to be detected. Hyperlipaemia is a disease resulting from excessive mobilisation of triglyceride stores such that plasma clearance processes become overwhelmed. The most common concurrent diseases in the case population were liver disease with 87 donkeys affected, colic (62 donkeys), kidney disease (16 donkeys), respiratory disease (24 donkeys), and laminitis (17 donkeys). Such increased risk has been attributed to increased insulin resistance and body fat reserves in these animals.2, 3 The knowledge of clinicians and caregivers about the risk of hyperlipemia in obese donkeys may have led to improved observation and management of such donkeys to prevent hyperlipemia and particular care is taken to decrease stress. Hyperlipemia syndrome is a metabolic disease of ponies, miniature horses and donkeys; it rarely occurs in horses. They are efficient at storing and mobilising energy reserves which makes them prone to obesity, asinine metabolic syndrome (AMS) and dyslipidaemias. BACKGROUND Hyperlipemia is a common disorder of the donkey, with mortality rates of up to 80% reported. Hyperlidipemia is a build-up of fat in your donkey's blood that can be related to a loss of liver function or other underlying problems. 0000031061 00000 n The work was supported by the Donkey Sanctuary, UK. 0000001594 00000 n 1 This disorder arises from an imbalance in lipid metabolism resulting from mobilization … Concurrent disease was the factor that produced the highest risk of a donkey developing hyperlipemia (OR = 76.98; 45.76–129.48). Triglyceride concentrations were separated into previously defined clinical categories3and mortality rates were calculated as shown in Table 2. Each case was matched with 2 controls that had not suffered from hyperlipemia in the previous month. The level of significance was set at P < .05. Hyperlipaemia is associated with a high mortality (death) rate due to organ failure and therefore recognition of ‘at risk’ animals is essential. The incidence of this disorder in the population of mainly aged donkeys studied is high at 11% when compared to previous studies which found incidence rates of 37 and 5% in donkeys and ponies, respectively. Clinical notes also were examined to confirm the diagnosis of hyperlipemia. 0000002982 00000 n First reported in 1969, hyperlipaemia is now a well-known condition seen in pony breeds, donkeys and miniatures. Search for more papers by this author. Loving finally reveals it at the table to Rachel and Tom about what had happened. 0000003096 00000 n Such patients are invariably difficult to manage and mortality rates of 60–80% frequently are reported.3, 5, 8 This poor prognosis makes prevention of hyperlipemia or amelioration in the very early stages, crucial. This creates a negative energy balance. Increased production of VLDL rather than decreased clearance of VLDL from the serum results in hyperlipemia.2 If this process continues, fatty infiltration of the liver results in eventual liver failure.3, 4. 0000009545 00000 n Tagged: donkey; equine; horse; hyperlipaemia; Citation. Because donkeys love to chew for 14-18 hours a day, they should be provided with high-fiber substances such as straw, hay, leaves and branches of nonpoisonous plants. Search for more papers by this author . Always be aware of the risk of hyperlipaemia in a stressed donkey. The objective of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of hyperlipemia in a population of donkeys and to determine risk factors for development of the disease. Kidney disease was a potential risk factor (P = 0.02), with 74% of these animals having gastric ulceration. 0000038840 00000 n Concurrent disease was present in 324 donkeys (72%) with hyperlipemia and in 50 control donkeys (6%). Because of lack of blood samples from healthy controls, such information was not available for a retrospective study. HYPERLIPAEMIA - HYPER (TOO MUCH) LIP(ID) (FAT) AEMIA (IN THE BLOOD) ALL DONKEY OWNERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF THIS CONDITION AS IT CARRIES A HIGH RISK OF DEATH EVEN WHEN RECOGNISED AND TREATED PROMPTLY. The early signs of dullness and reduced appetite can be difficult to detect. 0000032096 00000 n The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. We present a 60 day full money back guarantee. SUMMARY The case histories and clinical findings of 15 ponies with hyperlipaemia are presented. The mean age of the control population was 24.2 years (SD = 9.2) with a range of 1–52 years (Fig 1). TM CAMPBELL. Hyperlipemia is a common disorder of the donkey and is characterized by increased plasma triglyceride concentrations (>4.4 mmol/L) and subsequent infiltration of organs by fat. Median body condition score (BCS) for the case population was BCS 3 (range, 1–5) and for the control population was BCS 3 (range, 1.5–5). Older donkeys may be more prone to bullying and find it difficult to compete for food in mixed age groups. EQUINE hyperlipaemia is characterised by abnormalities in lipid metabolism and primarily affects ponies and donkeys. JM TARRANT. EQUINE hyperlipaemia is characterised by abnormalities in lipid metabolism and primarily affects ponies and donkeys. A total of 449 cases were investigated from a population of 3829 donkeys; donkeys were resident at The Donkey Sanctuary, a charity providing refuge for unwanted donkeys in the UK. Donkeys have been noted to preferentially graze cardboard over freely available fresh haylage and straw. Of the donkeys examined, 18% had hyperlipaemia prior to or death or euthanasia and this was a risk factor for donkeys developing gastric ulceration; 62% of hyperlipaemia cases also displayed gastric ulceration (P < 0.001). 9 It is similar to a study in miniature horses which reported a mortality rate of 50%.10. Learn about our remote access options, Donkey Sanctuary, Sidmouth, Devon, EX10 0NU, UK. Hyperlipaemia is a serious condition caused by too much fat in the blood. Download Citation | Management of Equine hyperlipaemia | EQUINE hyperlipaemia is characterised by abnormalities in lipid metabolism and primarily affects ponies and donkeys. The mere fact of the donkey being ill is more important than the specific disease process that put the donkey at risk. Department of Veterinary Clinic and Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria 3030. Hyperlipaemia is a condition in which triglycerides (fats) are released into the circulation which can result in organ failure and death unless treated rapidly. 0000013726 00000 n It should not be confused with hyperlipaemia which is a more serious condition which usually affects ponies and donkeys. With this condition, your donkey’s fat reserves become mobilized. Donkeys are not able to efficiently regulate the issue, leading to increased fat levels in the blood, … Donkeys and small ponies are at greatest risk of hyperlipemia, with a prevalence of 3–5% in the general population and 11–18% in inpatient populations in veterinary hospitals.5 Previous studies have determined risk factors for the disease in populations of equids and have shown obesity, pregnancy, stress, and concurrent diseases to be important predisposing or precipitating factors for the development of hyperlipemia in both donkeys and ponies.2, 6, 7 Hyperlipemia may be a primary disease or may be secondary to another disease. All donkeys that enter this site are new to The Donkey Sanctuary and will spend 6–12 weeks in this facility before being integrated into the main residential herds. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Hyperlipemia is a common disorder of the donkey and is characterized by increased plasma triglyceride concentrations (>4.4 mmol/L) and subsequent infiltration of organs by fat.1 This disorder arises from an imbalance in lipid metabolism resulting from mobilization of body fat in response to negative energy balance. Hyperlipaemia in a donkey. 7 days. Donkeys are particularly susceptible to this condition. Pregnancy and lactation are widely acknowledged as risk factors for hyperlipaemia in donkeys (Jeffcott and Field, 1985). It keeps going, as the donkey can’t reverse hyperlipaemia themselves. 0000000016 00000 n Hyperlipidaemia in Donkeys. These differences are likely to be attributable to differences in management practices or population structures or other factors that create bias that were not examined as part of this study. Hyperlipaemia is a condition in which triglycerides (fats) are released into the circulation which can result in organ failure and death unless treated rapidly. In some cases, the concurrent disease may be secondary to the hyperlipemia (eg, increases in liver enzyme activities caused by hepatic lipidosis). This study focused only on clinical cases of hyperlipemia and should not be extrapolated to animals with mild increases in serum triglyceride concentrations without accompanying clinical signs. 0000024967 00000 n Many horses in western countries spend most of their time indoors within a stable or outdoors but in very small paddocks, where their movement space is severely limited. JM TARRANT. Of the donkeys examined, 18% had hyperlipaemia prior to or death or euthanasia and this was a risk factor for donkeys developing gastric ulceration; 62% of hyperlipaemia cases also displayed gastric ulceration (P < 0.001). The study provides useful insights into health and management risk factors that may be focused on to further decrease the risk of hyperlipemia both in the population of donkeys studied and in the donkey population as a whole. Horses with insulin resistance, ponies, miniature horses and donkeys are at risk of hyperlipidemia (elevation of lipids in blood). Pathogenesis of hyperlipemia is complex, with a negative energy balance triggering excessive mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue, leading to increased hepatic triglyceride synthesis and secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins, concomitant hypertriglyceridemia, … abnormality called insulin resistance (donkeys are inherently insulin resistant). If dental issues preclude chewing of forage in between feeds, this practice may lead to the donkey developing health issues. The results of these changes were not available for study. Donkeys (as well as some native pony breeds) are particularly susceptible to this devastating condition, which has been recognised since the late 1960’s. A number of control donkeys may have been suffering from nonclinical hypertriglyceridemia not noted during the study. HYPERLIPAEMIA RISK FACTORS • Breed; donkeys are inherently insulin resistant. 0000019572 00000 n (2005). Home; Publications; Presentations; Projects; Other research; Home. All donkeys presenting with an acute disease have blood samples collected if any suspicion of hyperlipemia exists to ensure that they do not have hypertriglyceridemia. Download Citation | Hyperlipaemia in donkeys | Hyperlipaemia is common in donkeys and is usually secondary to intercurrent disease. Hyperlipemia results from a negative energy balance when fat reserves are mobilized and sent to the liver to be converted to glucose for energy. Department of Veterinary Clinic and Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria 3030. Confidence limits for proportional data were calculated using the Wilson Score Method. Hyperlipidaemia is common in horses and ponies as the result of restricted calorie intake or excessive exercise. 0000011525 00000 n Many gelding donkeys are highly sexually driven often years after castration and in‐season mares may be repeatedly mounted and harassed by some geldings, possibly leading to stress, primary disease, or inability to access feed, which may precipitate the development of hyperlipemia.