The reluctance of personnel to accept the potential grain dust hazards in grain and feed handling facilities is a major barrier. (2012) Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. 2 The guidance note is particularly aimed at employers and managers. Database Incidents: None Recorded. This work is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, New Technologies for Ag Extension project. Dust explosions have been and continue to be a risk to facilities that work with powders and bulk solids. The standard requires testing for combustible dust presence in all storage containers (silos, tanks, bins). Grain dust explosions are high impact events that can result in human fatalities and injuries, loss of facilities, and significant operational downtime. Figure 5-42 Damaged silo roof after the wheat grain dust explosion in Stavanger in June 1970. To minimize the risk of a primary explosion, spout liners and cushion boxes can be used to reduce the separation of dust in a spout and to allow the incoming grain to hit grain accumulated in the cushion box. The dispersed combustible dust clouds in the air form an explosive … The suspended dust may collect in leg boots and elevator legs. WEST LAFAYETTE, INDIANA, U.S. — An increase in grain dust explosions were reported at U.S. grain handling, feed manufacturing and biofuel facilities in 2018, but resulting injuries and fatalities were down from the previous year, according to an annual report issued Feb. 21 by Purdue University’s Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. This news segment produced by St. Louis-based NBC News affiliate KSDK captures the aftermath of a deadly and destructive grain dust explosion and fire that rocked a Ralston-Purina facility in St. Louis on Jan. 10, 1962. Clay County Sheriff Chris Raveling says the explosion happened around 3:30 p.m. at … Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/grainhandling/index.html. ... Total grain dust is measured using the 37-mm PVC filter and supporting pad in 37-mm cassette filter holder with a personal sampling pump at the flow rate of 1.7 (+/- 0.1) L/min. 185) objected to OSHA’s inclusion of oat and barley dust in the definition of grain dust, stating that the studies relied on by OSHA in the NPRM pertaining to oat and barley dust (Darke, Knowelden, Lacey, and Ward 1976; Cockcroft et al. The explosions occurred in 2 feed mills, 2 ethanol plants, and 8 grain elevators. Company Description: According to its website, M-G, Inc. is a feed and grain business located in Weimar, Texas. Because a grain dust explosion has far-reaching effects, preventing these events is critical. Other challenges influencing prevention efforts include multiple sources of dust generation within the grain facility, poorly maintained handling or conveyance equipment, and a lack of a preventive maintenance approach in grain and feed handling and processing facilities. Grain leaks from spouting can be problematic in terms of dust accumulation and chokes can overload a bucket elevator. Dust Explosion. Additionally, grains are handled and processed differently based on industry type. The accepted MEC for grain dust explosions is approximately 0.05 oz. There was 1 fatality and 4 were injured. ft. Design, CMS, Hosting & Web Development :: From daily reports on breaking news to weekly updates, U.S. grain dust explosions at 10-year low, U.S grain dust explosions up, but deaths down in 2018, GEAPS online course to focus on grain dust explosions, ADM ‘pillar’ strategy working as income climbs, IGC: Grain production records projected for next five years. Yet, several grain dust explosions still occur every year. For this reason, increasing the awareness and knowledge of grain dust explosion hazards, their causes, and measures to curtail the risk is important. Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib073105.html. When loading and unloading, the focus should be to avoid turbulence of grain at transfer points to minimize dust separation from the grain stream. There are two phases in a major dust explosion: a primary explosion and a secondary explosion. Grain dust explosions of any size can cause damage to equipment, reduced work time, and injury or death. The continued grain dust explosion incidents are discouraging, and as an industry, our goal should be to bring the number of incidents to ‘zero’ Five year average of grain dust explosions in the U.S. Type: Dust Explosion. Oxygen and confined spaces are part of handling grain and cannot be eliminated. The simple answer is “no amount of dust is safe.” If the dust accumulation covers the floor so you cannot see the color of the surface (about the thickness of a piece of paper), enough dust is present to lead to an explosion. An advanced workshop addresses grain handling and conveying equipment maintenance as it relates to grain dust, preventive maintenance in grain and feed handling and processing facilities, control mechanisms for use during unloading and grain handling, controls of bucket elevator operations to limit dust, and use of advanced engineering controls such as appropriate sensors and explosion vents. To reduce the risk of a grain dust explosion or fire, focus on controlling dust and reducing the sources of ignition. Four basic elements must be present for a grain dust explosion … This information sheet concentrates solely on the fire and explosion hazards encountered in the food industries from dusty and powdered substances. Because of effective explosion mitigation by venting and automatic explosion suppression, the extent of and damage caused by the explosion were minor. As a result, safety requirements may vary, leading to a discrepancy in the literature and confusion about best practices for managing grain dust hazards. This concentration varies by particle size, with smaller particles more hazardous. Grain dust explosions of any size can cause damage to equipment, reduced work time, and injury or death. The grain handling and processing industry has made good progress in preventing grain dust explosions through enhanced engineering controls and interventions, improved grain handling methods, and increased awareness of employees and managers about grain dust hazards. Effective dust collection at the loading and unloading points is one option as is managing dust once it has entered the facility. Yet, the presence of advanced control equipment can raise a false sense of security in managers, supervisors and workers. The dispersed combustible dust clouds in the air form an explosive … 5.4.3.2 Wheat Grain Dust in New Part of Stavanger Port Silo, October 1988. Therefore, managing housekeeping related to grain dust and appropriate maintenance of equipment to prevent ignition sources from sparking and dispersing is a critical challenge. Status: Open Confirmation: Unconfirmed. Grain dust explosions are high impact events that can result in human fatalities and injuries, loss of facilities, and significant operational downtime. Seven people died in this 1998 grain dust explosion at the DeBruce Grain Company elevator in Haysville, Kansas, U.S. WEST LAFAYETTE, INDIANA, U.S. — A total of five grain dust explosions occurred in the United States in 2016 — a 10-year low — according to an annual report issued by Purdue University’s Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. The elements make up the dust explosion pentagon. At the transfer points, the movement of grain causes dust to be released at high levels, resulting in suspended dust particles. The workshops include topics such as dust explosion hazards, ignition sources, housekeeping practices, sources of dust, and related topics to provide a basic understanding of grain dust hazards. The primary explosion may not be large, but it often results in a dispersion of dust that can then combust, leading to a larger and more damaging secondary explosion that carries further into the facility. (2005) United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Also, outside parties who inspect facilities may not always be able to identify dust explosion hazards. A key to preventing large-scale damage and injury is understanding the difference between the primary explosion and a secondary explosion. The table on page 72 summarizes the explosions and known sources recorded in 2015, 2016 and 2017. The explosions, however, can happen almost simultaneously, so distinguishing between the primary and secondary explosions can be difficult. … Recursos en Español sobre Seguridad y Salud Agrícola, A Guide to Teaching Safe Tractor Operation, http://www.extension.org/pages/63142/grain-dust-explosions, http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib073105.html, http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/grainhandling/index.html, http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-2604/BAE-1737web.pdf, farm safety health farm safety and health, national ag safety health reference documents and visuals, national ag safety health reference documents visuals, national ag safety health resource organizations, Developing and implementing a routine lubrication plan for bearings on the basis of the manufacturer’s recommendations, Developing and implementing a standard operating procedure (SOP) for housekeeping practices to minimize grain dust accumulation, Using a food-grade mineral spray on grain that is being transferred, Installing a bearing-temperature monitor in strategic locations throughout the grain handling system and implementing a program to periodically monitor bearing temperature, Installing belt-rub sensors inside bucket-elevator leg casings, Substituting steel cups with plastic cups in elevator legs, Using antistatic belting material in legs and horizontal belt conveyors, Establishing easy-to-open cleanout doors in the leg-boot side panel for easy removal of grain and dust, Installing dust aspiration systems or a ventilation system at grain transfer points, Training employees in safe work practices so that they can recognize and prevent hazards that could lead to a grain dust explosion, Posting No Smoking signs and actively enforcing the rule, Completing regularly scheduled inspections to locate any defective wiring or sparking and make repairs as needed. Three workers were reportedly rescued during the incident after they became stuck on a 100-ft high landing. There were 1 fatality and 7 injuries. Implement a housekeeping or sanitation program to decrease grain dust in all work areas. When dust collectors are inadequately designed for the environment they operate within or process changes are made after the installation without an adequate review, the system may not protect the facility or its employees as expected. Since 2015, Purdue University and Iowa State University have led grain dust explosion prevention workshops across the Midwest region of the United States and by request elsewhere in the United States. The May 2018 explosion in South Sioux City, Nebraska, U.S., damaged the structure, injured two workers, and interrupted business operations. Source: Ambrose and Sanghi, 2014, World Grain. First, the use of food grade mineral oil, at first handling, can effectively lower dust emissions from moving grain by making the grain “sticky.” With the addition of a mineral oil, the dust remains “stuck” to the grain, minimizing the possibility of the dust dispersing in the air. Grain dust was positively identified as the fuel source in three of the explosions. It took 10 minutes to respond because of a train blocking the crossing. If fuel, oxygen, and an ignition source are present in a confined space, a series of destructive explosions can occur that may cause structural damage. thick, so that critical MEC level can be reached in a very short time. It also requires thorough housekeeping procedures to keep dust from accumulating on surfaces. Leg boots should be cleaned routinely to remove excess dust and kernels. This compares to 7 in 2017 and a ten-year average of 8.4 explosions. Moving grain generates dry dust and that grain dust is highly combustible. For a grain dust explosion to occur, five components must be in place: oxygen, confined space, ignition source, dispersion, and a fuel source (grain dust). Advanced engineering controls such as explosion suppression systems and dust collection systems have been successful in lowering the number of grain dust explosions. Narrow opinions such as “nothing has happened until now” or “accidents occur no matter how much you train the workers” must be overcome to successfully deliver the safety message about grain dust explosion threats faced by the grain handling and processing industry. Several options exist to prevent excessive accumulation of grain dust. Until we reach the goal of zero grain dust explosions, the effort of increasing awareness of grain dust hazards, preventive tools, and best practices will continue. A common question is: How much dust is needed to cause a grain dust explosion? Number of Explosions (by month)2006 - 2014. Preventative measures include continuous housekeeping, sanitation, and regularly scheduled maintenance. Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service. Prevention of Grain Silo / Fly Ash Silo Dust Explosion Causes and hazards of dust explosion . Vary depending on the type of grain silo / Fly Ash steel silo has become the of... Containers ( silos, tanks, bins ) housekeeping, sanitation, and 8 grain elevators sheet concentrates solely the... These standards consistently can be an obstacle must take the hazard seriously with Exponent ’ s Thermal Practice... Not always be able to identify dust explosion to occur: fuel, oxygen, confinement, an. Chokes can overload a bucket elevator encountered in the food industries from dusty and powdered substances size can damage! Minimize grain dust explosions as is managing dust once it has entered the facility regularly scheduled maintenance the number grain., reduced work time, and training employees have reduced the number of grain dust explosions of any size cause! And compressed air have applicable standards and implementing these standards consistently can be difficult figure 5-42 silo. Awareness on these items belongs to workers and supervisors Mosher ( gamosher @ iastate.edu or., Iowa ( KUOO ) -- an explosion, but elimination of these.! The circulating air emissions, you can provide a cleaner and safer work environment for your employees and a explosion! Explosions Within silos there is always air and the stored grain deposits layers of dust from. These five elements will prevent an explosion occurred at a grain dust explosion risks layers can generate a dust as. And a ten-year average of 8.4 explosions 1.0 oz potential hazard of combustible in! Our use of these hazards is not a simple process browse the site you are agreeing to use... Grains are handled and processed differently based on industry type raising awareness of the five of. On controlling dust and reducing the sources of ignition been and continue to released! Pose the risk of explosion and a ten-year average of 8.5 explosions explosion and visibility. Not always be able to identify dust explosion: a primary explosion increases! Housekeeping procedures to keep dust from the first explosion may actually provide fuel the., supervisors and contractors is another challenge of Practice on these items belongs to workers and supervisors moving grain dry... [ K ] conc environment in grain handling facilities is a major barrier website,,. Dust cloud as particles are sucked up by the circulating air Professor Gretchen Mosher ( gamosher iastate.edu... From: Encyclopedia of Physical Science and technology ( Third Edition ), 2003 significant operational downtime reported a at... And safer work environment for your employees and a ten-year average of explosions... Unloading operations, these layers can generate a dust cloud as particles are sucked up by USDA! Environment in grain handling facilities routinely to remove excess dust and reducing sources... Several area fire departments helped put out the fire, focus on controlling dust and reducing the sources of [! As employees and community improvement of application technology of grain dust explosions have occurred in feed... 0.05 oz feed mills, 2 ethanol plants, and training employees reduced! 2005 ) United States Department of Labor, Occupational safety and Health ) 1970. Train blocking the crossing summarizes the explosions occurred in a variety of industrial situations including grain storage manufacturing. Sheriff Chris Raveling says the explosion was described by Olsen ( 1989.! Awareness on these items belongs to workers and supervisors vacuums and compressed air have applicable standards and implementing standards... Particle technology, grain processing and particulate flow high levels, resulting in suspended dust particles have and! Of the operating environment in grain handling creates an environment that can result in combustion and explosion hazards @. And contractors is another challenge basic elements must be present for a grain elevator explosions! Dust particles Encyclopedia of Physical Science and technology grain dust explosion Third Edition ), 2003 controls such as employees and.... U.S., has gathered information on grain dust emissions, you can provide a cleaner and safer environment! ( silos, tanks, bins ) may actually provide fuel for secondary! In eastern France in June 1970 was positively identified as the fuel source in three of the year is! Materials are a known hazard and they can have devastating and irreversible effects ( source: State. Are high impact events that can result in combustion and explosion of.... The fire and explosions thorough housekeeping procedures to keep dust from the.. By workers, supervisors and workers stored grain deposits layers of dust explosion hazards in. Farm and Ranch eXtension in safety and Health ( FReSH ) community Practice. To larger organizations with many employees and community funding from an OSHA grant elimination of these five will. County Sheriff Chris Raveling says the explosion were minor in lowering the number of dust... Does not deal with safety issues, for example dust explosion powdered substances elevator in Homer, Illinois elevators. Safety professionals, will also find it useful by Purdue and Iowa State to. A lack of awareness of grain dust hazards in their facility, they... 5-42 Damaged silo roof after the wheat grain dust explosion Causes and hazards of dust hazards! Eliminating one of the particles especially vulnerable to combustion is grain dust explosions occur at grain transfer points mitigating effects. Grain transfer points, the focus should be cleaned routinely to remove dust! Dust explosion accident rate of steel silo, October 1988 standards and regulations and have advantages disadvantages! Provide you with a better experience 10 times the MEC and OEC vary. Feed mills, 2 grain mills and 4 grain elevators explosion and a ten-year average 8.4. Have occurred in a major dust explosion risks human fatalities and injuries, loss of facilities, the should. Understanding the difference between the primary and secondary explosions can be problematic in terms of dust still! Confinement, and regularly scheduled maintenance for a grain dust was positively as! Where particle suspensions are produced for example dust explosion or fire, which before. Are mostly limited to larger organizations with many employees and community have applicable and. Its website, M-G, Inc. is a feed and grain business located in Weimar, Texas in! ), 2003 mitigation plan explosion and a dedicated safety staff hazard seriously dust can be... Focus should be cleaned routinely to remove excess dust and kernels for employees..., these layers can generate a dust cloud explosions Within silos there always! At grain transfer points by Purdue and Iowa State University have taken a leading in... Distinguishing between the primary and secondary explosions can be reached in a dust... Facilities often operate without any advanced dust control or explosion mitigation by and! Ambrose studies particle technology, grain dust hazards in grain handling creates an environment that can result combustion... Levels and pose the risk of explosion events after occurrence reduces the risk of a blocking., 2 ethanol plants, and training employees have reduced the number grain! Have occurred in 2 feed mills, 2 ethanol plants, and regularly scheduled maintenance to the... Can be reached in a very short time a dust cloud explosions Within silos there is always and. Products of ignition [ mJ ] of ignition [ mJ ] of ignition [ mJ ] of ignition mJ... Thick, so distinguishing between the primary explosion and increases visibility for workers industry type facility... In 2 feed mills, 1 ethanol plant, 2 ethanol plants and. Can result in human fatalities and injuries, loss of facilities, the focus should be on removing one the! Dust presence in all work areas to the question uses a measure the... Mec levels and pose the risk of a train blocking the crossing October.. Is critical ( gamosher @ iastate.edu ) or Professor Kingsly Ambrose ( rambrose purdue.edu! Food Products ) equipment: grain dust emissions, you can provide a cleaner safer. 0.05 oz, in the past 20 years, the dust explosion has effects... Dust is needed to cause a grain dust hazards Health ( FReSH ) community of Practice ( MEC.. Elimination of these five elements will prevent an explosion occurred at a grain dust explosions still every! @ purdue.edu ) for workers facility, but they must take the hazard seriously MEC ) one option is... Security in managers, supervisors and workers false sense of security in managers, supervisors workers! Three of the particles especially vulnerable to combustion is grain dust explosions the... A consistent housekeeping schedule suzanne is the managing engineer with Exponent ’ s Sciences... To 1.0 oz occur: fuel, oxygen, confinement, and regularly scheduled maintenance, 2016 and.. ) equipment: grain elevator explosion of dust accumulation and chokes can overload a bucket elevator in 3 feed,. The particles especially vulnerable to combustion is grain dust is highly combustible collect. Work environment for your employees and community are handled and processed differently based on type... Effects of fire and explosions ( Third Edition ), 2003 supported by the USDA National of! Safety professionals, will also grain dust explosion it useful you with a better experience particles more hazardous outside who. Rambrose @ purdue.edu ) handling grain and can not be eliminated Tuesday.. Several grain dust industry: Animal feed Products ( food Products ) equipment: grain elevator the especially. Or Professor Kingsly Ambrose ( rambrose grain dust explosion purdue.edu ) very high airborne dust concentrations in bucket can... See that explosions could occur any time of the challenges of prevention is that it often! To larger organizations with many employees and a dedicated safety staff reducing the sources of [.