Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 which means there are 82 protons and 82 electrons in the atomic structure. The following are calculated values of valence shell orbital radii, Rmax. The chemical symbol for Hafnium is Hf. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. The chemical symbol for Bismuth is Bi. Lead is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Hafnium is a chemical element with atomic number 72 which means there are 72 protons and 72 electrons in the atomic structure. Polonium is a chemical element with atomic number 84 which means there are 84 protons and 84 electrons in the atomic structure. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, lawrencium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. Nitrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 7 which means there are 7 protons and 7 electrons in the atomic structure. Strontium is a chemical element with atomic number 38 which means there are 38 protons and 38 electrons in the atomic structure. Only about 5×10−8% of all matter in the universe is europium. Main Difference – Atomic Radius vs Ionic Radius. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Americium is a transuranic member of the actinide series, in the periodic table located under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas. These atoms can be converted into ions by adding one or more electrons from outside. Silicon is a chemical element with atomic number 14 which means there are 14 protons and 14 electrons in the atomic structure. The R max values for neutral gaseous element valence orbitals are abstracted from reference 1.. J.B. Mann, Atomic Structure Calculations II.Hartree-Fock wave functions and radial expectation values: hydrogen to lawrencium, LA-3691, Los … The chemical symbol for Gallium is Ga. Gallium has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium, indium, and thallium. Silicon is a hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal, valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth’s outer and inner core. a) 0.26 b)0.72 c)1.00 - 1.12 d)1.51 - 1.64 (the measurement units are not provided) Okay, so I've looked up the atomic radius of Ca and it's 197 pm. The radii of neutral atoms range from 30 to 300 pm or trillionths of a meter. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. Its properties are thus intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine. The chemical symbol for Barium is Ba. The chemical symbol for Ruthenium is Ru. For electronic configurations, where it matters, the values given for octahedral species are low spin unless stated to be high spin. Approximately 60–70% of thallium production is used in the electronics industry. Pure radium is silvery-white alkaline earth metal. For uranium atom, the Van der Waals radius is about 186 pm = 1.86 ×10−10m. The units for atomic radii are picometers, equal to 10 −12 meters. Atomic radii … Oxygen is a colourless, odourless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 and the life-supporting component of the air. The commercial use of beryllium requires the use of appropriate dust control equipment and industrial controls at all times because of the toxicity of inhaled beryllium-containing dusts that can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease in some people called berylliosis. Sizes of atoms and their ions. The atomic radius is the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outermost stable electron of a neutral atom. Radon is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas. Aluminium is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group. The chemical symbol for Neodymium is Nd. The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. Neon is a colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air. Depending on the definition, the term may apply only to isolated atoms, or also to atoms in condensed matter, covalently bound in … The chemical symbol for Platinum is Pt. Each row on the periodic table represents an energy level in an atom. Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. But its density pales by comparison to the densities of exotic astronomical objects such as white dwarf stars and neutron stars. Bromine is the third-lightest halogen, and is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured gas. In nuclear industry gadolinium is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to very high neutron absorbtion cross-section of two isotopes 155Gd and 157Gd. Sulfur is a chemical element with atomic number 16 which means there are 16 protons and 16 electrons in the atomic structure. Molybdenum a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element. As there are no physical existence of orbital in atoms, it is difficult to measure the atomic radius. Discoverer: Corson, Dale R. and Mackenzie, K. R. The actinide or actinoid series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium. Definition. Platinum is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Scandium is a chemical element with atomic number 21 which means there are 21 protons and 21 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Chlorine is Cl. In nuclear reactors, promethium equilibrium exists in power operation. Hafnium is a lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in many zirconium minerals. Lead is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. Nickel is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Radon is a chemical element with atomic number 86 which means there are 86 protons and 86 electrons in the atomic structure. If we include man made elements, the densest so far is Hassium. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Ok, so what is the atomic radius of an atom of O? The chemical symbol for Arsenic is As. The chemical symbol for Berkelium is Bk. Calcium is a chemical element with atomic number 20 which means there are 20 protons and 20 electrons in the atomic structure. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and concludes three major decay chains of heavier elements. Holmium is a part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare-earth element. Scandium is a silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare-earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanides. So the problem we are working on today is asking asked to calculate the difference in election negativity are any crazy ideas atomic radius and the first ionization energy between the Adams over a beryllium and oxygen. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Neptunium is a chemical element with atomic number 93 which means there are 93 protons and 93 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Titanium is Ti. Hafnium’s large neutron capture cross-section makes it a good material for neutron absorption in control rods in nuclear power plants, but at the same time requires that it be removed from the neutron-transparent corrosion-resistant zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactors. Tellurium is far more common in the universe as a whole than on Earth. The problem is its meaning, which is clearly very different in different sources and books. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals. Arsenic is a chemical element with atomic number 33 which means there are 33 protons and 33 electrons in the atomic structure. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. Tantalum is a chemical element with atomic number 73 which means there are 73 protons and 73 electrons in the atomic structure. Copper is a chemical element with atomic number 29 which means there are 29 protons and 29 electrons in the atomic structure. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. Thorium is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Video Transcript. The chemical symbol for Polonium is Po. Atomic radii are measured in picometers (one picometer is equal to one trillionth of a meter). Atomic radii trend along period: As we move from left to right across the periodic table the number of valance electrons in an atom increase. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth’s crust. Californium is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye (after einsteinium). Titanium is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl. Osmium is a chemical element with atomic number 76 which means there are 76 protons and 76 electrons in the atomic structure. Lanthanoids comprise the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium. Since the boundary is not a well-defined physical entity, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius. Lead is widely used as a gamma shield. One measure of size is the element-element distance within the element. Samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, it is a moderately hard silvery metal that readily oxidizes in air. Iron is a metal in the first transition series. Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands (rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral). ATOMIC RADIUS--IONIC RADIUS ATOMIC RADIUS Half of the bond length between two homonuclear atoms is called atomic radius. Germanium is a chemical element with atomic number 32 which means there are 32 protons and 32 electrons in the atomic structure. Cerium is a chemical element with atomic number 58 which means there are 58 protons and 58 electrons in the atomic structure. Berkelium is a chemical element with atomic number 97 which means there are 97 protons and 97 electrons in the atomic structure. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. Gadolinium belongs to a rare earth elements (it is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table). Erbium is a silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements. On the periodic table of the elements, atomic radius tends to increase when moving down columns, but decrease when moving across rows (left to right). Rhenium is a chemical element with atomic number 75 which means there are 75 protons and 75 electrons in the atomic structure. is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. This equilibrium also known as “samarium 149 reservoir”, since all of this promethium must undergo a decay to samarium. Phosphorus is a chemical element with atomic number 15 which means there are 15 protons and 15 electrons in the atomic structure. The classical description cannot be used to describe things on the atomic scale. The chemical symbol for Astatine is At. Ruthenium is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. The increase in atomic size going down a column is also due to electron shielding, but the situation is more complex because the principal quantum number n is not constant. Discoverer: Priestley, Joseph and Scheele, Carl Wilhelm, Discoverer: Ramsay, William and Travers, Morris, Discoverer: Ramsay, Sir William and Strutt, John (Lord Rayleigh), Discoverer: Del Rio, Andrés Manuel (1801) and Sefström, Nils Gabriel (1830), Discoverer: Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Paul-Émile, Discoverer: Ramsay, Sir William and Travers, Morris, Discoverer: Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm and Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert, Discoverer: Perrier, Carlo and Segrè, Emilio, Discoverer: Reich, Ferdinand and Richter, Hieronymus, Discoverer: Müller von Reichenstein, Franz Joseph, Discoverer: Ramsay, William and Travers, Morris William, Discoverer: Kirchhoff, Gustav and Bunsen, Robert. The chemical symbol for Potassium is K. Potassium was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. The atomic radius of the elements increases as we go from right to left across a period and as we go down the periods in a group. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Trends in atomic radius down a group. Discoverer: McMillan, Edwin M. and Abelson, Philip H. Discoverer: Glenn T. Seaborg, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edward M. McMillan, Arthur C. Wohl, Discoverer: Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon O. Morgan, Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, Bernard G. Harvey, Gregory R. Choppin, Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, Torbørn Sikkeland, John R. Walton, Discoverer: Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, Copyright 2021 Periodic Table | All Rights Reserved |. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (5th … The chemical symbol for Silicon is Si. Technetium is the lightest element whose isotopes are all radioactive; none are stable. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. The chemical symbol for Einsteinium is Es. Berkelium is a member of the actinide and transuranium element series. Since atoms and ions are circular 3D structures, we can measure the radius of … What is Radius and Density of Atomic Nucleus - Definition, What is Atomic and Nuclear Physics - Definition, What is Atomic and Nuclear Structure - Definition, What is Uranium in the Environment - Definition. Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. C.)The relative electronegativity increases, and the atomic radius decreases. You can reference the WebElements periodic table as follows:"WebElements, https://www.webelements.com, accessed February 2021. Atomic Radius: The distance of an atom's nucleus to its surrounding shell of electrons or outermost orbital is known as its atomic radius. Cadmium is a chemical element with atomic number 48 which means there are 48 protons and 48 electrons in the atomic structure. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, europium usually assumes the oxidation state +3. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation. Chromium is a chemical element with atomic number 24 which means there are 24 protons and 24 electrons in the atomic structure. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. It is the eponym of the lanthanide series, a group of 15 similar elements between lanthanum and lutetium in the periodic table, of which lanthanum is the first and the prototype. Bismuth is a chemical element with atomic number 83 which means there are 83 protons and 83 electrons in the atomic structure. In practice, the value is obtained by measuring the diameter of an atom and dividing it in half. Fermium is a chemical element with atomic number 100 which means there are 100 protons and 100 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Dysprosium is Dy. In the case of Oxygen the atomic radius is 0.65 Å.There are cool facts about Oxygen that most don't know about. Chromium is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle metal4 which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point. Two values are given here, one is based upon calculations and the other upon observation - follow the appropriate link for further details. Yttrium is a chemical element with atomic number 39 which means there are 39 protons and 39 electrons in the atomic structure. The most stable known isotope, 269Hs, has a half-life of approximately 9.7 seconds. Sodium is a chemical element with atomic number 11 which means there are 11 protons and 11 electrons in the atomic structure. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. All values of radii are given in picometres (pm). It is a noble metal and a member of the platinum group. Although neodymium is classed as a rare earth, it is a fairly common element. Caesium is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C, which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. An atomic radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms. Definition of atomic radius. Niobium is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, often found in the minerals pyrochlore (the main commercial source for niobium) and columbite. The chemical symbol for Cerium is Ce. Gold is a chemical element with atomic number 79 which means there are 79 protons and 79 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Caesium is Cs. Actinium gave the name to the actinide series, a group of 15 similar elements between actinium and lawrencium in the periodic table. The reason is equally obvious - you are adding extra layers of electrons. Particle locations in quantum mechanics are not at an exact position, they are described by a probability density function. The chemical symbol for Mendelevium is Md. Terbium is a chemical element with atomic number 65 which means there are 65 protons and 65 electrons in the atomic structure. The bond length in OO is: 120.741pm. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. Cobalt is a chemical element with atomic number 27 which means there are 27 protons and 27 electrons in the atomic structure. Actinium is a soft, silvery-white radioactive metal. It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth’s crust. However, there is no standard definition for this value. This website was founded as a non-profit project, build entirely by a group of nuclear engineers. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. Follow the appropriate hyperlinks for literature references and definitions of each type of radius. Caesium is a chemical element with atomic number 55 which means there are 55 protons and 55 electrons in the atomic structure. It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys. Zirconium is widely used as a cladding for nuclear reactor fuels. Selenium is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table, sulfur and tellurium, and also has similarities to arsenic. Cadmium is a soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Naturally occurring potassium is composed of three isotopes, of which 40K is radioactive. Trends in atomic radius across periods. All rights reserved. The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the distance out to which the electron cloud extends from the nucleus. Similar trends are observed for ionic radius, … As an example, the internuclear distance between the two hydrogen atoms in an H 2 molecule is measured to be 74 pm. Relative sizes of atoms and ions. Discoverer: Davy, Sir H. and Thénard, L.-J. Oxygen is a chemical element with atomic number 8 which means there are 8 protons and 8 electrons in the atomic structure. Conversion factors are: The size of neutral atoms depends upon the way in which the measurement is made and the environment. Gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Cerium is a soft, ductile and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, and it is soft enough to be cut with a knife. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between 159,200 years and 4.5 billion years. Iodine is a chemical element with atomic number 53 which means there are 53 protons and 53 electrons in the atomic structure. Since nucleons (protons and neutrons) make up most of the mass of ordinary atoms, the density of normal matter tends to be limited by how closely we can pack these nucleons and depends on the internal atomic structure of a substance. The chemical symbol for Nickel is Ni. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. Discoverer: Scientists at Dubna, Russia (1964)/Albert Ghiorso et. circle the atom in each pair that has the largest atomic radius: a) Al or B b) Na or Al c) S or O d) O or F e) Br or Cl f) Mg or Ca. Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. The chemical symbol for Tantalum is Ta. Americium is a chemical element with atomic number 95 which means there are 95 protons and 95 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Tungsten is W. Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth almost exclusively in chemical compounds. Atomic radii decrease, however, as one moves from left to right, across the Periodic Table. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins. The Rmax values for neutral gaseous element valence orbitals are abstracted from reference 1. The chemical symbol for Cadmium is Cd. It is also the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications. Since the boundary is not a well-defined physical entity, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius. The chemical symbol for Erbium is Er. Molybdenum is a chemical element with atomic number 42 which means there are 42 protons and 42 electrons in the atomic structure. These have similar chemical properties, but palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of them. The chemical symbol for Ytterbium is Yb. a) Al b) Na c) S d) O e) Br f) Ca. Note: Learn more about the atomic radius here. The chemical symbol for Krypton is Kr. In nuclear industry, especially artificial xenon 135 has a tremendous impact on the operation of a nuclear reactor. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium. Tungsten is an intrinsically brittle and hard material, making it difficult to work. The chemical symbol for Oxygen is O. The term "atomic radius" is not particularly helpful although its use is widespread. Uranium is a chemical element with atomic number 92 which means there are 92 protons and 92 electrons in the atomic structure. Ruthenium is a chemical element with atomic number 44 which means there are 44 protons and 44 electrons in the atomic structure. Einsteinium is the seventh transuranic element, and an actinide. It may seem, that the space and in fact the matter is empty, but it is not. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Atomic Radius of Chemical Elements. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. Magnesium is a chemical element with atomic number 12 which means there are 12 protons and 12 electrons in the atomic structure. Isotopes, Atomic Mass, and Mass Spectrometry (M2Q3) 8. E. Discoverer: De Marignac, Charles Galissard, Discoverer: De Marignac, Jean Charles Galissard, Discoverer: Göhring, Otto and Fajans, Kasimir. The chemical symbol for Aluminum is Al. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides. All atoms have a (theoretical) atomic radius, even Oxygen. Francium is a highly radioactive metal that decays into astatine, radium, and radon. Ytterbium is a chemical element with atomic number 70 which means there are 70 protons and 70 electrons in the atomic structure. It is fairly obvious that the atoms get bigger as you go down groups. The chemical symbol for Palladium is Pd. Major advantage of lead shield is in its compactness due to its higher density. All of the alkali metals have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, which is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, which combines with anions to form salts. Tin is a chemical element with atomic number 50 which means there are 50 protons and 50 electrons in the atomic structure. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226. The chemical properties of this silvery gray, crystalline transition metal are intermediate between rhenium and manganese. Discoverer: Coster, Dirk and De Hevesy, George Charles, Discoverer: Elhuyar, Juan José and Elhuyar, Fausto, Discoverer: Noddack, Walter and Berg, Otto Carl and Tacke, Ida. Iridium is a very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is generally credited with being the second densest element (after osmium). The elements in increasing order of atomic radius: oxygen, carbon, aluminum, potassium Explanation: The distance from the center of the nucleus to the outermost shell of the electron is known as the atomic radius of an element. Thulium is a chemical element with atomic number 69 which means there are 69 protons and 69 electrons in the atomic structure. Atomic Radius: The distance of an atom's nucleus to its surrounding shell of electrons or outermost orbital is known as its atomic radius. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, with an atomic mass of 85.4678. On the periodic table, atomic radius generally decreases as you move from left to right across a period (due to increasing nuclear charge) and increases as you move down a group (due to the increasing number of electron shells). The name xenon for this gas comes from the Greek word ξένον [xenon], neuter singular form of ξένος [xenos], meaning ‘foreign(er)’, ‘strange(r)’, or ‘guest’. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). Zinc is a chemical element with atomic number 30 which means there are 30 protons and 30 electrons in the atomic structure. In addition, the inner energy level electrons block the attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the electrons in the outer energy level. Radius values are sufficiently transferable to allow periodic trends to be one of only two such that... A probability density function group 7 of the distance between the nucleus in... Choice, however, this assumes the oxidation state +3 chemical, and slightly lower that... The radii of neutral atoms are colored gray, cations red, ionic. To elemental silicon 30 electrons in the atomic radius 42 which means there are 11 protons and 4 in. Were taken from these sources: Cotton, F. A. ; Wilkinson, (! 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