Celtic harp is also common, as are vocals and dances. However, most of the population remained rural. The French government and local politicians also feared that Nantes, because of its population and its former Breton capital status, would have maintained a harmful competition with Rennes to get the regional institutions and investments. Anne unsuccessfully tried to preserve Breton independence, but she died in 1514, and the union between the two crowns was formally carried out by Francis I in 1532. Finistère juts out into the foaming waters of the Atlantic. The Museum of Fine Arts Pont-Aven is dedicated to the School of Pont-Aven. The potteries usually feature naïve Breton characters in traditional clothing and daily scenes. Une conspiration bretonne à l'aube des Lumières, Paris, Tallandier, 2008. Cereals are mostly grown for cattle feeding. Architecture from the 20th century can be seen in Saint-Nazaire, Brest and Lorient, three cities destroyed during the Second World War and rebuilt afterwards, and in the works of the Breton nationalist architects like James Bouillé and Olier Mordrel. [50], The unemployment rate in Brittany is lower than in other French regions and it is usually around 6 or 7% of the active population. It possibly means "wide and flat" or "to expand" and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany: Llydaw. It advocates more autonomy for the region and its positions are very close to the Socialist parties. The latest information on Covid-19 situation in France can be found on the French government website, and in Brittany on the Prefecture Website. Fougères in northeast Brittany is famous for its magnificent, huge medieval castle. Paul Gauguin came to paint in Pont-Aven just inland from the Aven estuary, founding the important Pont-Aven school of painters. [51], In 2009, Region Brittany's gross domestic product reached 82 billion euros. The number of exploitations tends to diminish, but as a result, they are merged into very large estates. Breton can be divided into two main dialects: the KLT (Kerne-Leon-Tregor) and the dialect of Vannes. Brittany is the second-largest cider-producing region in France. The GDP of the Loire-Atlantique département is around 26 billion euros, and the GDP of the five historical Breton départements would be at around 108 billion euros. But they do make great snacks! The obstacles to reunification are the same as in 1956: having Nantes in Brittany could harm the position of Rennes and create an economic imbalance between Lower and Upper Brittany. Nantes was eventually liberated by Alan II of Brittany in 937 with the support of his god-brother King Æthelstan of England. Many Bretons crossed the Atlantic to support the American War of Independence. In Lower Brittany, the medieval style never totally disappeared. The Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes owns a large collection of Egyptian, Greek and Roman antiquities as well as drawings and engravings by Domenico Ghirlandaio, Parmigianino, Albrecht Dürer and Rembrandt. Nantes specialised in shipbuilding and food processing (sugar, exotic fruits and vegetables, fish...), Fougères in glass and shoe production, and metallurgy was practised in small towns such as Châteaubriant and Lochrist, known for its labour movements. A spectacular introduction to the province greets ferry passengers: the River Rance, guarded by magnificently preserved St-Malo on its estuary, and beautiful medieval Dinan 20km upstream. Museums dedicated to Prehistory and local megaliths are located in Carnac and Penmarch, while several towns like Vannes and Nantes have a museum presenting their own history. Medieval Brittany was far from being a united nation. After the Second World War, the Ecole Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, the foremost French military academy, settled in Coëtquidan. Brittany is also known for its salt, mainly harvested around Guérande and used in butter and milk caramels. Brittany is also the land of myths and legends with a separate language where those stories are celebrated. On its side, Morbihan remains a right-wing stronghold. [29] These included many sailors such as Armand de Kersaint and soldiers such as Charles Armand Tuffin, marquis de la Rouërie. A new University of Rennes was progressively recreated during the 19th century. The Armoricans supplied archers who attacked the Huns' front lines during the main battle and thwarted Attila's night assault on the Roman camp with a hail of arrows "like rain". Brittany had a megalith culture probably as early as 6,000 BC before the Celts arrived in the 6th century BC. The Breton anthem, although not official, is Bro Gozh ma Zadoù – ("Old Land of My Fathers"). The Breton forests, dunes, moorlands and marshes are home to several iconic plants, such as endemic cistus, aster and linaria varieties, the horseshoe vetch and the lotus maritimus.[44]. The Museums of Fine Arts of Brest and Quimper offer similar collections, with large quantities of French painting together with the works of some Italian and Dutch artists. Those people had strong economic ties to the Insular Celts, especially for the tin trade[citation needed]. A long Brittany’s spectacular north coast, between the ferry ports of St-Malo and Roscoff, family resorts like Erquy, Binic and Ploumanac’h make charming seaside stopovers. The best soils were primitively covered by large forests which had been progressively replaced by bocage during the Middle Ages. Modern Brittany - Illustration from Legends & Romances of Brittany by Lewis Spence, illustrated by W. Otway Cannell. Only a small number of statues depicting Roman gods were found in Brittany, and most of the time they combine Celtic elements. Welsh literary sources assert that Conan came to Armorica on the orders of the Roman usurper Magnus Maximus,[a] who sent some of his British troops to Gaul to enforce his claims and settled them in Armorica. The modern flag of Brittany was designed in 1923. In 1789 Brittany was divided into five departments: Côtes du Nord, Finistère, Ille-et-Vilaine, Loire-Atlantique (later moved), and Morbihan. In 1956, Brittany was legally reconstituted as the Region of Brittany, although the region excluded the ducal capital of Nantes and the surrounding area. Several Breton towns still have their medieval walls, such as Guérande, Concarneau, Saint-Malo, Vannes, Fougères and Dinan. After the last glacial period, the warmer climate allowed the area to become heavily wooded. Auray. Although the details remain confused, these colonies consisted of related and intermarried dynasties which repeatedly unified (as by the 7th-century Saint Judicaël) before splintering again according to Celtic inheritance practices. ", "Cycling holidays in france FAQ page for all your questions", "Fac-similé JO du 07/07/1967, page 06810 – Legifrance", "The domain www.domainesinfo.fr is registered by NetNames", Brittany : in the West, the end of the world, The official site for Brittany Tourism â€“ Brittany Regional Tourist Board, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brittany&oldid=993704900, Members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Pages using infobox settlement with unknown parameters, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 01:30. [24] Among the immigrant Britons, there were some clergymen who helped the evangelisation of the region, which was still pagan, particularly in rural areas. Before them, Brittany had also been visited by Academic and Romantic painters like Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin and Jules Achille Noël who were looking for dramatic seascapes and storms. The glorious and immensely varied coast is one of the main reasons people come to Brittany. The Gulf of Morbihan is a vast natural harbour with some forty islands that is almost a closed sea. The three main dialects spoken in the western end of Brittany are: in opposition to the Vannetais, spoken around Vannes, which is the most differentiated Breton dialect. [18] The oldest monuments, cairns, were followed by princely tombs and stone rows. The current border runs from Plouha on the English Channel to the Rhuys Peninsula on the Bay of Biscay. Brittany is home to many megalithic monuments; the words menhir and dolmen come from the Breton language. The pancake is found everywhere, with fillings you would never think could exist (and maybe some of them should not). [57] Loire-Atlantique's population is more rapidly growing than Region Brittany's and it is the 12th most populated French département. The Interceltic Festival of Lorient is the big daddy of Celtic festivals, with around 200 events and shows, 5,000 performers and 700,000 spectators from all over the world. The oral tradition entertained by medieval poets died out during the 15th century and books in Breton were very rare before 1850. The coast has become one of the favorite places for the French and many Europeans to holiday. Among them, Alan Stivell contributed most in popularising the Celtic harp and Breton music in the world. This article is about the cultural region in the north-west of France. KLT speakers pronounce it [brɛjs] and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it [brɛχ] and would write it Breih. Jules Ferry also promoted education policies establishing French language as the language of the Republic, and mandatory education was a mean to eradicate regional languages and dialects. Gouren, a style of folk wrestling, is the most popular Breton sport. Homo sapiens settled in Brittany around 35,000 years ago. In 1972, the regions received their present competencies, with an elected regional council. The free peasants lived in small huts, whereas the landowners and their employees lived in proper villae rusticae. Both have been recognised as "Langues de Bretagne" (languages of Brittany) by the Regional Council of Brittany since 2004. Bretons live in Brittany, a region located in the northwestern corner of France. Un évènement pas si anodin", "Current debates on the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Britain and Ireland", "La Bretagne, terre de résistance à l'extrême droite", "Le Roc'h RUZ, point culminant de la Bretagne", "Normales et records des stations météo de France – Infoclimat", "Les oiseaux marins : des falaises, des îlots, des embruns et des plumes", "Que sait-on des invertébrés continentaux en Bretagne ? Sailing is particularly important for sea-resorts like La Trinité-sur-Mer, Pornichet, Concarneau, Lorient and the îles de Glénan, where a prestigious school is located. Cycling has always been one of the main sports of Brittany, but leisure cycling and the infrastructure to support it have been growing extremely rapidly. In Loire-Atlantique, where Gallo is not promoted at all by the local authorities, many people do not even know the word "Gallo" and have no idea that it has writing systems and publications. They usually make their biscuits with salted butter and sell them in iron boxes. The president also appoints a prefect in each département. French, the only official language of the French Republic, is spoken today by the vast majority in Brittany, and it is the mother tongue of most people. [23] Their petty kingdoms are now known by the names of the counties that succeeded them—Domnonée (Devon), Cornouaille (Cornwall), Léon (Caerleon); but these names in Breton and Latin are in most cases identical to their British homelands. Mary Anne Evans is a member of the British Guild of Travel Writers. Pearl of the Emerald Coast, Dinard is an elegant seaside resort that has successfully preserved its belle-époque spirit, as illustrated by its numerous listed villas dating from the end of the 19th century. Surrounded by the sea, Brittany offers a wide range of fresh seafood and fish, especially mussels and oysters. The most impressive castles can be seen along the border with France, where stand the Château de Fougères, the Château de Vitré, the Château de Châteaubriant and the Château de Clisson. Brittany importantly lost the Mad War against France in 1488, mostly because of its internal divisions that were exacerbated by the corruption at the court of Francis II, Duke of Brittany. Try the local fish stew of sole, turbot, and shellfish called cotriade. Related keywords. The Renaissance architecture is almost absent in the region, except in Upper Brittany, close to the border with France. Crêpes and galettes are the two most well-known Breton dishes. Soldat Louis is the main Breton rock band,[citation needed] and Breton singers include Gilles Servat, Glenmor, Dan Ar Braz, Yann-Fañch Kemener, Denez Prigent, Nolwenn Korbell and Nolwenn Leroy. For the Breton nationalists, it was an occasion to recreate Brittany as a political and administrative entity, but the new region had to be economically efficient. Contemporary sculptures can be seen in the park around the Château de Kerguéhennec, in Bignan. It is closely followed by several neighbouring hills culminating at around 384 m above sea level.[37]. Yann Tiersen, who composed the soundtrack for Amélie, the Electro band Yelle and the avant-garde singer Brigitte Fontaine are also from Brittany. There, ruins of a castle surrounded by a lake are associated with the Lady of the Lake, a dolmen is said to be Merlin's tomb and a path is presented as Morgan le Fay's Val sans Retour. The north coast has exposed Atlantic beaches and natural harbors. ‘Jean-Claude, our Breton steward, is a former submariner, merchant seaman and hotelier.’ ‘The band draws on Balkan repertoire but adds a few Breton tunes.’ ‘He had a Breton thing, in that he burns friend and foe alike.’ ‘In high season the Breton coast is the most popular in France after the Cote d' Azur.’ Several Breton lords helped William the Conqueror to invade England and received large estates there (e.g. Brittany is on two major TGV lines, one linking Paris to Nantes and Le Croisic, on the south coast, and another linking Paris to Rennes and Brest. At the same time, the local economy collapsed and many farming estates were abandoned. Stronger alcohols include the chouchen, a sort of mead made with wild honey, and an apple eau de vie called lambig. The kingdom lost its eastern territories, including Normandy and Anjou, and the county of Nantes was given to Fulk I of Anjou in 909. Agriculture is hugely important, and with fishing accounts for 10% of the national production of France.Â. According to Breton king-lists, Riotham survived and reigned as Prince of Domnonia until his death sometime between 500 and 520, though this may have been a different person. The main companies are Brittany Ferries which operates lines between Plymouth and Roscoff, Portsmouth and Saint-Malo, and Roscoff and Cork. [59][60] After the 1960s, the whole region has had a strong demographic growth because of the decline of the traditional emigration to richer French regions. [62], 51.9% of the poll respondents agreed that Brittany should have more political power, and 31.1% thought that it should stay the same. However, local innovations permitted some changes and the birth of a particular style. 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