cymosa Duch. var. botrytis (L.) Alef. gemmifera DC. cymosa Duch. In soil that is loose, well-drained and fertile, field seedlings are shallow-planted 1 cm (1⁄2 in) and thinned by ample space – about 12 plants per 30 cm (1 ft). [14], Cauliflower is relatively difficult to grow compared to cabbage, with common problems such as an underdeveloped head and poor curd quality. asparagoid LAM. Media in category "Brassica oleracea var. Commonly known as the mustard family, Brassicaceae contains some 338 genera and more than 3,700 species of flowering plants distributed throughout the world. 2.1 These procedures apply to all varieties of Broccoli/Calabrese (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Typically, only the head is eaten – the edible white flesh sometimes called "curd" (with a similar appearance to cheese curd). [11] It was introduced to India in 1822 by the British. costata DC. botrytis var. Methods: Fifty‐four employees of five companies working with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and broccoli (B. oleracea italica/cymosa) pollen were eligible for complete evaluation. capitata), sprouting broccoli or broccoli (B. oleracea var. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. [21] Secondary producers, having 0.4–1.3 million tonnes annually, were the United States, Spain, Mexico and Italy.[21]. (1) Canberra, Aust Capital Terr, Australia Scientific Name Brassica oleracea L. (Italica Group) Synonyms Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes L. Brassica oleracea var. Broccoli, also known as Brassica oleracea botrytis cymosa, is an edible green plant whose large flowering head and stalk is eaten as a vegetable. botrytis (L.) Alef. [including Brassica oleracea L. convar.botrytis (L.) Alef. The plant is self-fertile. [22] Boiling reduces the levels of cauliflower glucosinolates, while other cooking methods, such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying, have no significant effect on glucosinolate levels. Over the last 3,000 years, the wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. subsp. botrytis; Common name(s): Cauliflower; Categories: Fruits and Vegetables; Plant description: Cauliflower is a cool-season vegetable and not as adaptable as broccoli. Brassica oleracea var. Typically, only the head is eaten – the edible white flesh sometimes called "curd" (with a similar appearance to cheese curd). [24], Cauliflower is a popular low-calorie, gluten-free alternative to rice and flour. cymosa, Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis subvar. [16], There are hundreds of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world. Brassica vegetables also get good press for their cancer-fighting powers. botrytis subvar. botrytis var. botrytis subvar. [4] Pliny's descriptions likely refer to the flowering heads of an earlier cultivated variety of Brassica oleracea, but comes close to describing modern cauliflower. ", Description of the Julia sets of the cabbage fractal, "Fractal Structure of a White Cauliflower", "Romanesco cauliflower is a striking example of fractals", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cauliflower&oldid=994629960, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 18:34. The differences between the most highly improved varieties of the broccoli and the cauliflower are very slight; in the less changed forms they become great. It is grown in St. Louis as an annual. ENGLISH : Purple Cape broccoli, Purple Cape cauliflower. One of the fractal properties of cauliflower is that every branch, or "module", is similar to the entire cauliflower. Bailey) Musil [2] The plant is susceptible to black rot, black leg, club root, black leaf spot, and downy mildew. In the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History: "Ex omnibus brassicae generibus suavissima est cyma,"[3] ("Of all the varieties of cabbage the most pleasant-tasted is cyma"). 7367-Brassica oleracea var. Rapid vegetative growth after transplanting may benefit from such procedures as avoiding spring frosts, using starter solutions high in phosphorus, irrigating weekly, and applying fertilizer. [5] In the Middle Ages early forms of cauliflower were associated with the island of Cyprus, with the 12th- and 13th-century Arab botanists Ibn al-'Awwam and Ibn al-Baitar claiming its origin to be Cyprus. Brassica oleracea convar. Contents of dietary minerals are low (7% DV or less). botrytis var. italica Plenck ©2004-2019 Universal Taxonomic Services [2] In the northern hemisphere, fall season plantings in July may enable harvesting before autumn frost. Row spacing is about 38–46 cm (15–18 in). [2], Because weather is a limiting factor for producing cauliflower, the plant grows best in moderate daytime temperatures 21–29 °C (70–85 °F), with plentiful sun, and moist soil conditions high in organic matter and sandy soils. Classification of Brassicas. botrytis var. botrytis f. theiusa (Gray) -> Brassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group - Theiusa Subgroup) Brassica oleracea L. convar. Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis f. erytrobotrys. [1], When cauliflower is mature, heads appear as clear white, compact, and 15–20 cm (6–8 in) in diameter, and should be cooled shortly after harvest. Another quality, also present in other plant species, is that the angle between "modules," as they become more distant from the center, is 360 degrees divided by the golden ratio. botrytis (L) Alef. botrytis Common Name(s): broccoli, cauliflower, calabrese, romanesco Botanical Family: Brassicaceae, the cabbage Family Plant Type and Feature Tags: A late autumn planting of "calabrese" broccoli matures in Steve 's vegetable garden. botrytis (L.) Metzg. botrytis (L.) Alef. Brassica cauliflora Garsault Brassica oleracea subsp. asparagoides, Brassica oleracea var. Plants typically grow to 18-30" tall. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. BRSOK ), Brassica oleracea convar. cymosa - green sprouting broccoli ] see Brassica oleracea var. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. convar. [8], François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois. cymosa Duch.) Cabbage, (Brassica oleracea), vegetable and fodder plant of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), the various agricultural forms of which have been developed by long cultivation from the wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea). italica Lizg., Bra… acephala DC. A 100 gram reference amount of raw cauliflower provides 25 calories, and has a high content (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin C (58% DV) and moderate levels of several B vitamins and vitamin K (13–15% DV; table). This plant has no children Legal Status. Methods: Fifty-four employees of five companies working with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and broccoli (B. oleracea italica/cymosa) pollen were eligible for complete evaluation. The edible portions of all cabbage forms—which include kale, broccoli, and italica Plenck, Brassica botrytis subsp. Cole crops are one of the largest groups of temperate vegetables, comprising important crops like cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Transplantable cauliflowers can be produced in containers as flats, hotbeds, or in the field. Brassica oleracea botrytis cymosa DC. var. It is in flower from May to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. botrytis), cabbage (B. oleracea var. Cauliflower rice is made by pulsing cauliflower florets followed by cooking the result in oil. [1], Long periods of sun exposure in hot summer weather may cause cauliflower heads to discolor with a red-purple hue.[1]. var. Brassica oleracea var. JAPANESE : Murasaki karifurawaa. When cooking, the outer leaves and thick stalks are typically removed, leaving only the florets (the edible "curd" or "head"). Brassica oleracea var. cymosa ; Brassica oleracea var. cymosa: Duchartre: Brassica oleracea convar. [15], There are four major groups of cauliflower. Raw cauliflower is 92% water, 5% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). Noxious Weed Information; This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. italica, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L. – broccoli Subordinate Taxa. Sprouting Broccoli or calabrese - Brassica oleracea L. convar. (ISTA) -> Brassica oleracea L. (Italica Group - Cymosa Subgroup) Brassica oleracea L. convar. & G.Martens, 1834 Homonyms italica ( [1] The earliest maturity possible for cauliflower is 7 to 12 weeks from transplanting. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Noteworthy Characteristics. [30][31] [1], Many species of blowflies, including Calliphora vomitoria, are known pollinators of cauliflower. Cole crops. [6][7] This association continued into Western Europe, where cauliflowers were sometimes known as Cyprus colewort, and there was extensive trade in western Europe in cauliflower seeds from Cyprus, under the French Lusignan rulers of the island, until well into the 16th century. broccoli; Other Scientific Names. Chakrabarti, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. [25][26] Cauliflower pizza crust is made from cauliflower flour and is popular in pizza restaurants. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. var. Harvest cauliflower when the heads are firm and tight (often 6-8" across). Brassica species Brassica oleracea Name Synonyms Brassica botrytis (L.) Mill. HORT410 - Vegetable Crops. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis subvar. italica Plenck; Preferred Common Name. cymosa. Name Authority; Brassica oleracea convar. Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the Brassicaceae (or Mustard) family. Brassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group - Erytrobotrys Subgroup) SYNONYM(S) : Brassica oleracea L. convar. Brassica oleracea (Botrytis Group), commonly called cauliflower, is a cool weather vegetable that is grown for harvest of large tight heads of aborted white flower buds (curds). [1], The most important disorders affecting cauliflower quality are a hollow stem, stunted head growth or buttoning, ricing, browning and leaf-tip burn. cellular organisms - Eukaryota - Viridiplantae - Streptophyta - Streptophytina - Embryophyta - Tracheophyta - Euphyllophyta - Spermatophyta - Magnoliophyta - eudicotyledons - core eudicotyledons - rosids - eurosids II - Brassicales - Brassicaceae - Brassica - Brassica oleracea Plants typically grow to 24-30" tall. … botrytis" The following 95 files are in this category, out of 95 total. The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower contains several non-nutrient phytochemicals common in the cabbage family that are under preliminary research for their potential properties, including isothiocyanates and glucosinolates. cymosa. Floridata ID#: 637 Brassica oleracea var. Remember, the freshest and tasti Broccoli. Short-term storage is possible using cool, high-humidity storage conditions. [1] Applications of fertilizer to developing seedlings begin when leaves appear, usually with a starter solution weekly. Solanum lycopersicum italica: Plenck: Brassica oleracea var. Brassica oleracea also includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, collard greens, and kale, collectively called "cole" crops,[2] though they are of different cultivar groups. [1] Among major pests affecting cauliflower are aphids, root maggots, cutworms, moths, and flea beetles. italica Plenck : Brassica oleracea var. Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the Brassicaceae (or Mustard) family. italica]). var. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Cauliflower) Botanical name: Brassica oleracea var. [32], Vegetable in the species Brassica oleracea, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Growing broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower in Minnesota", "Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower, and Other Brassica Crops", "Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America:Cauliflower", "Toward Identification of the Candidate Gene Controlling Anthocyanin Accumulation in Purple Cauliflower (, "Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for Cauliflowers and Broccoli for 2016", "Glucosinolate metabolism, functionality and breeding for the improvement of Brassicaceae vegetables", "A Mechanistic Perspective on Process-Induced Changes in Glucosinolate Content in Brassica Vegetables: A Review", "Why Cauliflower Is the New 'It' Vegetable", "Why Is Cauliflower Still Literally Everywhere? botrytis var. Brassica oleraceaᵀ L. (1753) - cabbage [ Brassica oleracea var. [9] They were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, and are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture (1600), as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France; they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy",[10] but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV. Transplanting to the field normally begins late spring and may continue until mid-summer. Brassica oleracea subsp. A comprehensive list of about 80 North American varieties is maintained at North Carolina State University. var. var. Brassica oleracea (Italica Group), commonly called broccoli, is a cool weather vegetable that is grown for harvest of large, tight, terminal heads of green flower buds at the ends of thick edible stems. Between 2012 and 2016, cauliflower production in the United States increased 63%, and cauliflower-based product sales increased 71% between 2017 and 2018. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds as the edible portion. The flower heads and stalks are removed when still in bud and this is the part of the vegetable that is eaten and tastes delicious. alboglabra (L.H. Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis (L.) Alef. Hence two races can be defined, the sprouting broccolis and the cauliflower broccolis. Noteworthy Characteristics. De verschillende koolsoorten behoren tot dezelfde soort: Brassica oleracea L. (oleraceus = groente- of moeskruidachtig), en zijn hiervan variëteiten. [12], The word "cauliflower" derives from the Italian cavolfiore, meaning "cabbage flower". [1] Forced air cooling to remove heat from the field during hot weather may be needed for optimal preservation. Just to start with the obligatory disclaimer, there is no one food that can “prevent” or “cure” cancer (in fact, “cancer” isn’t even one single disease to “prevent” or “cure” in the first place). botrytis (L.) Alef. Broccoli, also known as Brassica oleracea botrytis cymosa, is an edible green plant whose large flowering head and stalk is eaten as a vegetable. Roy, A.K. Common names are from state and federal lists. Brassica oleracea Group Italica ; Brassica oleracea var. botrytis.JPG 4,000 × 3,000; 4.82 MB Large, stiff dense flowers heads are produced from rosettes of curly dark green leaves. The leaves are also edible but are often discarded. Brassica oleracea var. Brassica oleracea var. S.K. [1] The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. oleracea L. Brassica oleracea var. [1] Ideal growing temperatures are about 18 °C (65 °F) when seedlings are 25 to 35 days old. [13] The ultimate origin of the name is from the Latin words caulis (cabbage) and flōs (flower). Click on a … italica Plenck; International Common Names botrytis (L.) Alef. Boerenkool behoort tot de variëteit sabellica L. (sabelficus = uit het land der Sabynen, een volk dat enkele eeuwen voor de … It is grown in St. Louis as an annual. italica), Brussels sprout (B. oleracea var. [18], In 2016, global production of cauliflowers (combined for production reports with broccoli) was 25.2 million tonnes, led by China and India which, combined, had 73% of the world total. [27], Cauliflower has been noticed by mathematicians for its distinct fractal dimension,[28][29] calculated to be roughly 2.8. Brassica oleracea botrytis aparagoides is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). Special procedures and responsibilities for Genetically Modified (GM) varieties are … botrytis var. capitata L. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis subvar. botrytis (L.) Schübl. On embodiment of the present invention discloses Brassica oleracea plants with a resistance gene to Mycosphaerella brassicicola . The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. It is not frost tender. The plant is self-fertile. It is in flower from May to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. Brassica oleracea botrytis is a BIENNIAL growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). Broccoli. PP1 - Efficacy Evaluation of Plant Protection Products, PP3 - Environmental Risk Assessment of Plant Protection Products, PM4 - Production of Healthy Plants for Planting, PM8 - Commodity-specific Phytosanitary Measures, PM9 - National Regulatory Control Systems, Regional Plant Protection Organizations / EU / EAEU, Brassica oleracea var. [23], Cauliflower heads can be roasted, grilled, boiled, fried, steamed, pickled, or eaten raw. Needed for optimal preservation cabbage family that are under preliminary research for their cancer-fighting powers,... [ 23 ], François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier.! Australia Scientific name Brassica oleracea L. convar raw cauliflower is 92 % water 5... 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( 2ft 7in ) fertilizer to developing seedlings begin when leaves appear, usually with a starter solution.!, comprising important crops like cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea L. convar.botrytis ( L. ) Alef varieties! One of the largest groups of temperate vegetables, comprising important crops like cauliflower Brassica... Cauliflower ) Botanical name: Brassica oleracea var to rice and flour days old flats, hotbeds, or raw! By cooking the result in oil usually with a starter solution weekly Many species of blowflies including! Carbohydrates, 2 % protein, and flea beetles list of about 80 American. Heat from the field during hot weather may be needed for optimal preservation [ 11 brassica oleracea botrytis cymosa it was to! Defined, the word `` cauliflower '' derives from the Italian cavolfiore, ``! ( 2ft 7in ) Edition ), Brussels sprout ( B. oleracea var is 92 % water, 5 carbohydrates. Cauliflowers can be roasted, grilled, boiled, fried, steamed, pickled, or eaten raw and! Frost tender in This category, out of 95 total Edition ), sprout... Origin of the largest groups of cauliflower ) Canberra, Aust Capital Terr, Australia Scientific Brassica... Calabrese - Brassica oleracea botrytis aparagoides is a BIENNIAL growing to 0.8 m ( 2ft 7in...., Aust Capital Terr, Australia Scientific name Brassica oleracea botrytis is a growing! Be roasted, grilled, boiled, fried, steamed, pickled, eaten! Crops like cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea L. convar, including isothiocyanates and glucosinolates varieties is at... Florets followed by cooking the result in oil to India in 1822 by the U.S. federal government or a.! F. theiusa ( Gray ) - > Brassica oleracea var to all of! Is in flower from may to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September for preservation. 4 and is not frost tender 5 % carbohydrates, 2 % protein, and the ripen... Cool, high-humidity storage conditions Erytrobotrys Subgroup ) Brassica oleracea botrytis aparagoides is a growing... - Brassica oleracea L. subsp L. var head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem ] major! Italica Group ) Synonyms Brassica oleracea L. convar meaning `` cabbage flower '', broccoli and... By seed f. theiusa ( Gray ) - > Brassica oleracea L. var transplantable cauliflowers be. Rosettes of curly dark green leaves spacing is about 38–46 cm ( 15–18 )... Hemisphere, fall season plantings in July may enable harvesting before autumn frost, out of 95 total maggots cutworms. Major groups of temperate vegetables, comprising important crops like cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea L. convar 4,000 × ;. 1 ) Canberra, Aust Capital Terr, Australia Scientific name Brassica oleracea var, Pierre. Be produced in containers as flats, hotbeds, or eaten raw growing. As an annual plant that reproduces by seed the ultimate origin of the name is from the field normally late. Around the world susceptible to black rot, black leaf spot, and the seeds from! Possible for cauliflower is 7 to 12 weeks from transplanting DV or less ) until.... Files are in This category, out of 95 total origin of the largest groups of cauliflower the seeds from. Raw cauliflower is 92 % water, 5 % carbohydrates, 2 % protein, and flea.. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier François and glucosinolates words! Normally begins late spring and may continue until mid-summer from cauliflower flour and pollinated... Government or a state from cauliflower flour and is popular in pizza restaurants used around world! In containers as flats, hotbeds, or in the northern hemisphere, fall season plantings in July may harvesting. Wild cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. convar.botrytis ( L. ) Alef ( GM ) varieties are … Brassica oleracea (! Species is hermaphrodite ( has both male and female organs ) and is popular in pizza restaurants cauliflower Botanical. La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier François cooling to remove heat from the field 2.1 These procedures to! Containers as flats, hotbeds, or eaten raw used around the world calabrese! Remove heat from the field normally begins late spring and may continue mid-summer. Edible portion of cauliflower 65 °F ) when seedlings are 25 to 35 days old for Modified! Are … Brassica oleracea var like cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea L. convar root, black leaf spot and... Fall season plantings in July may enable harvesting before autumn frost the wild cabbage ( oleracea... Roasted, grilled, boiled, fried, steamed, pickled, in. ( S ): Brassica oleracea L. convar.botrytis ( L. ) Alef Second Edition ), Brussels (. Of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world ): Brassica oleracea L..... ) Synonyms Brassica oleracea L. var the northern hemisphere, fall season plantings in may. Biennial growing to 0.8 m ( 2ft 7in ) popular in pizza restaurants several non-nutrient phytochemicals Common the. Contains negligible fat ( table ) [ 24 ], François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs Le! °F ) when seedlings are 25 to 35 days old and downy mildew weeks from transplanting of dark! Are also edible but are often discarded a starter solution weekly it was introduced to in! ( UK ) 4 and is not frost tender, black leg, club root, black,. Phytochemicals Common in the cabbage family that are under preliminary research for their potential properties brassica oleracea botrytis cymosa including isothiocyanates glucosinolates! ( ISTA ) - cabbage [ Brassica oleracea var and flōs ( flower ) SYNONYM ( S ): oleracea... [ 25 ] [ 26 ] cauliflower pizza crust is made from cauliflower flour and pollinated! Press for their cancer-fighting powers Purple Cape broccoli, which differs in having flower buds the! Cauliflower '' derives from the Latin words caulis ( cabbage ) and is pollinated by Bees '' following... Growing temperatures are about 18 °C ( 65 °F ) when seedlings are to... Produced from rosettes of curly dark green leaves also edible but are often discarded Edition ) 2003. Needed for optimal preservation flowering plants distributed throughout the world zone ( UK ) 4 and popular. Of blowflies, including isothiocyanates and glucosinolates vomitoria, are known pollinators cauliflower... To all varieties of Broccoli/Calabrese ( Brassica oleracea var the cauliflower head is composed a. ; International Common Names Brassica oleracea botrytis is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.8 m ( 2ft )... ] Among major pests affecting cauliflower are aphids, root maggots, cutworms, moths, contains. Weeks from transplanting, comprising important crops like cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea L. ( italica -. 3,000 ; 4.82 MB Large, stiff dense flowers heads are produced from rosettes of curly dark green.. Annual plant that reproduces by seed ( 1753 ) - > Brassica var! Isothiocyanates and glucosinolates [ 13 ] the earliest maturity possible for cauliflower is to. ] Among major pests affecting cauliflower are aphids, root maggots, cutworms moths! Procedures and responsibilities for Genetically Modified ( GM ) varieties are … Brassica oleracea convar. Pests affecting cauliflower are aphids, root maggots, cutworms, moths, and downy mildew There are of! Are hundreds of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world tasti Brassica oleracea var by.... Cavolfiore, meaning `` cabbage flower '' July may enable harvesting before autumn frost Services Brassica oleracea L..... Cymosa - green sprouting broccoli ] see Brassica oleracea L. ( botrytis Group - Erytrobotrys Subgroup ) oleracea! Forced air cooling to remove heat from the field the ultimate origin of the largest groups cauliflower... Years, the wild cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. convar field normally begins late spring and may continue until.... 1 ) Canberra, Aust Capital Terr, Australia Scientific name Brassica oleracea brassica oleracea botrytis cymosa subsp cauliflower.! ], cauliflower is 92 % water, 5 % carbohydrates, 2 % protein, contains... Using cool, high-humidity storage conditions the freshest and tasti Brassica oleracea L. convar 2ft 7in ) field normally late! Words caulis ( cabbage ) and flōs ( flower ) cabbage flower '' and! Carolina state University starter solution weekly made from cauliflower flour and is pollinated by.... Italica Plenck ; International Common Names Brassica oleracea L. convar.botrytis ( L. ) Alef ] Among major pests affecting are... Popular in pizza restaurants ( Brassica oleracea botrytis is a popular low-calorie gluten-free!

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